Difference between revisions of "Flora-basic"
(Created page with "=Microcontrollers= Computer and processor are generic terms for anything that can run a program, basically. <br> A controller or microcontroller usually refers to a simple pro...")
Revision as of 18:09, 26 March 2020
- 1 Microcontrollers
- 1.1 Arduino
- 1.2 Adafruit Flora
- 1.3 Adafruit Flora
Computer and processor are generic terms for anything that can run a program, basically.
A controller or microcontroller usually refers to a simple processor that does only one task, like listening to sensors.
In explaining microcontrollers, we’ll distinguish them from computers, which contain more powerful processors that can run an operating system.
what is an Arduino?
Arduino is an open source physical computing platform based on a simple input/output (I/O) board and a development environment that implements the Processing language. Arduino can be used to develop standalone interactive objects
or can be connected to software on your computer.
Arduino is composed of two major parts: the Arduino board, which is the piece of hardware you work on when you build your objects;
and the Arduino IDE, the piece of software you run on your computer. You use the IDE to createa sketch (a little computer program)
that you upload to the Arduino board. The sketch tells the board what to do.
In the meantime, HERE you can find ANYTHING about Arduino, including download the software
find a detailed introduction here []
The pins on your Arduino are the places where you connect wires to construct a circuit (probably in conjunction with a breadboard and some wire. They usually have black plastic ‘headers’ that allow you to just plug a wire right into the board. The Arduino has several different kinds of pins, each of which is labeled on the board and used for different functions.
we start by figuring put if our Arduino is all good or it is somehow damaged ...it is a basic test to check and run a simple script at the same time.
so we have something like this
GOOOD! lets dissect this
- commenting / one line and multiple lines
Lets compile this
Lets upload this
And we should have a Blinking aka Flashing on board LED
Get some data (use a pot/knob)
Digital sensors are the sensors that gives 2 state (on/off, 5V/0V). You will connect them to digital Pins and set it as INPUT.
Digital data consists exclusively of 0s and 1s .
For example, consider a push button switch. This is one of the simplest forms of sensors. It has two discrete values. It is on, or it is off. Other 'discrete' sensors might provide you with a binary value.
Another example of a digital sensor is an accelerometer, which sends a series of data points (speed, direction, and so on) to the Arduino. Usually digital sensors need a chip in the sensor to interpret the physical data.
Analog sensors on the other hand, gives range. You connect this types of Analog sensors to Analog Input pins which is measuring the incoming voltage between 0V-5V*. Arduino converts this incoming voltage into the number between 0-1023.
Analog data is transmitted as a continuous signal, almost like a wave. In other words, an analog sensor doesn’t send a burst of 1s and 0s like digital sensors do; instead, the sensor modulates a continuous signal to transmit data.
Microcontrollers are capable of detecting binary signals: is the button pressed or not? These are digital signals. When a microcontroller is powered from five volts, it understands zero volts (0V) as a binary 0 and a five volts (5V) as a binary 1. The world however is not so simple and likes to use shades of gray. What if the signal is 2.72V? Is that a zero or a one? We often need to measure signals that vary; these are called analog signals. A 5V analog sensor may output 0.01V or 4.99V or anything inbetween. Luckily, nearly all microcontrollers have a device built into them that allows us to convert these voltages into values that we can use in a program to make a decision.
An Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is a very useful feature that converts an analog voltage on a pin to a digital number. By converting from the analog world to the digital world, we can begin to use electronics to interface to the analog world around us.
Not every pin on a microcontroller has the ability to do analog to digital conversions. On the Arduino board, these pins have an ‘A’ in front of their label (A0 through A5) to indicate these pins can read analog voltages.
ADCs can vary greatly between microcontroller. The ADC on the Arduino is a 10-bit ADC meaning it has the ability to detect 1,024 (210) discrete analog levels. Some microcontrollers have 8-bit ADCs (28 = 256 discrete levels) and some have 16-bit ADCs (216 = 65,536 discrete levels).
OK, wait...the BREADBOARD
This terminology goes way back in the days.
Generally, you would mount electronic components to a piece of wood (the actual "breadboard"), and do all the wiring with point-point wire and the components just hanging between the various devices.
The story goes that an engineer had an idea for a vacuum tube device late one night. Looking around the house, the only base for his prototype that he found was indeed his wife's breadboard, from the breadbox.
A video by the Make magazine people
Ok, but why do we need to breadboard?
Well, they are useful for making temporary circuits and prototyping, and they require absolutely no soldering.
Prototyping is the process of testing out an idea by creating a preliminary model from which other forms are developed or copied, and it is one of the most common uses for breadboards.
The best way to explain how a breadboard works is to take it apart and see what’s inside.
connections lines are connected like this
How's that different?
The Flora, produced by adafruit, is a microcontroller, just like the Arduino Uno, but designed for wearable projects. Thus, is a little different from the normal boards from the hardware side, since the pins go out to those big wide sewable pads, instead of normal pin headers (like on the Uno)
Before we start we all have to do this click click
Get some data
So lets see what we can get fro our sensor and the Flora
We will wire things up like that:
Work with the data
Our motor will like values from 0 to 180 But we receive other values, so how about using the Map function
Still, not happy enough. We want to make sure that before we add our motor, the values do not exceed og go below the range 0-180 So let's Constrain
And finally, lets add the motor