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we often construct our reality using our sensory experience:

our visual and sound come from our eyes and ears, we can feel the moisture level on our skins, we can feel the gravity and orientation thanks to our inner ear structures.

and now imagine all the sensory input can be converted into digits and feed to a computer, and the computer device can decide what to do(output) with the input data. let's look back to the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

there is so many already made sensor module for Arduino. Many sensors can detect signals or pick up data beyond human senses. For example ultrasonic sensors. Imagine we can use these sensor technologies to expand our senses and "reality".

Back to the Sensors: In General, there are two types of sensors: analog and digital.

The analog sensor can detect a range of data. (for example from 0-1020)

The digital sensor can detect either 0 or 1. (or HIGHT /LOW).

for better understanding: the analog sensor is like a dimmer and the digital sensor is like a normal switch.

Here is a list of sensors and examples:

'''Comment sensors:'''
 Don't need additional libraries, normally included in Arduino's example tutorials.
Potential meters: AnalogReadSerial Botton or switch: Button Ultrasonic sensor: Ping Mic or piezo: knock toneMultiple
 Flex & force sensor: toneKeyboard
 LDR (Light Dependent Resistor):

'''Advanced sensors:'''

 Need to install additional libraries.
Capacitive Sensor-Analog : adafruit-cap1188-breakout Or touch-board Pulse sensor(heart rate): pulsesensor UV sensor: uv-index-sensor Gyroscope/acceleration meter:Gyroscope/acceleration